In the summer of 2016 Stormy Sultry aka Peggy Peterson and Dennis Duck aka David Dennison engaged in some alleged hanky-panky. Wanting to nip in the bud any later stories about what happened, Duck’s agent gets Sultry to sign a non-disclosure agreement (NDA) in exchange for which Duck happily pays Sultry $130,000 for her silence and her agreement that any dispute over the NDA could only be pursued in a private arbitration. Agreeing that damages for any breach are not readily determinable in dollars, the NDA has a liquidated damages provision that damages are $1 million per breach. Is the NDA enforceable? Continue Reading How to Avoid Trumping Non-Disclosure Agreements
Last month’s back-and-forth between the United States and China resulted in a flurry of proclamations establishing tariffs on imports from the respective countries. We’re here to help boil it down so you know whether your business is directly or indirectly impacted. Continue Reading Is Your Business Impacted by Tariffs?
Agreeing with Benjamin Franklin that there is nothing certain except death and taxes, Sketch Wood and his partner Minnie Brix, owners of Wood & Brix, and their 200 employees are certain that the new tax law will affect them, but they are a bit overwhelmed. Looking for an overview, Sketch asked his favorite non-tax lawyer to hit some of the high points of the first significant reform of the U.S. tax code since 1986. Continue Reading New Tax Law – Impacting Your Small Business and You
After not meeting his 2017 sales goals, Ollie B. Celling knows he might get fired from Duncey’s Caps, Inc. if he doesn’t get his numbers up in 2018. Celling begins marketing Duncey’s through his personal Facebook, Instagram and Twitter accounts. Soon he thinks he’s hit a home run: a customer from Japan wants to buy 5,000 ballcaps for whatever Major League Baseball team Yu Darvish signs with for the 2018 season. There’s one catch – the customer wants to pay with a new cryptocurrency. Duncey’s contracts require payment in U.S. dollars. Celling goes to Jim Duncey, the owner of Duncey’s, and tells him that Duncey’s should change their contracts to start accepting cryptocurrency because “it’s the wave of the future.” Should Duncey agree? Continue Reading Should You Accept Customer Payments in Bitcoin?
A number of years ago John Drane, owner of Drane Plumbing & Supply, executed a Power of Attorney (POA) naming his eldest daughter LaTrina Drane as his attorney in fact. John’s debilitating stroke last weekend risks placing him in rehabilitation for months. Determined to continue the family business that offers its customers “Let Us Drain Your Swamp,” LaTrina dusts off John’s POA. Will Latrina have any problems? Continue Reading Returning “Power” to the Power of Attorney
Spurred by the frenzy of mid-century modern furniture of the 1950s and 1960s returning in popularity, a growing number of collectors are investing in and holding vintage furniture. Capitalizing on that craze, N. Stile Sune’s start-up Mothbalz Antiques cannot grow fast enough to meet demand. To buy more old warehouses and re-fit them into climate controlled spaces, N. Stile must raise over $2 million and is willing to give his investors an equity interest. Can N. Stile use crowdfunding or must he go the old fashioned route of a private placement memorandum (PPM)?
Due to Sune’s $2 million in capital needs (and more) crowdfunding is not a viable option.
The JOBS Act 2012 (Jumpstart Our Business Startups) was designed to encourage funding of U.S. small businesses and to ease various U.S. securities regulations affecting business investment. Enticingly entitled the “Capital Raising Online While Deterring Fraud and Unethical Non-Disclosure Act of 2012,” Title III of the JOBS Act had visions of giving small individual investors access to early-stage investment and the enhanced ability to raise money beyond “friends and family,” through social media and from unknown investors like other sites such as Kickstarter.
When compared to other forms of private placements, crowdfunding is not a feasible option for our friend N. Stile Sune and Mothbalz Antiques. As explained in Forbes, here are ten reasons why:
- Issuers are capped to raising $1 million in any 12-month period.
- Shares issued are subject to a one-year restricted period.
- Crowdfunding is capped over a 12-month period at amounts depending upon net worth / income.
- Crowdfunding must be done through a registered broker-dealer or registered “funding portal.”
- The disclosure document (PPM) must be filed with the SEC prior to first sale and N. Stile Sune would have to file audited financial statements.
- Unlike JOBS Act changes affecting accredited investors, crowdfunding does not allow advertising except in narrow exceptions.
- Annual reports and possibly more frequent reports must be filed with the SEC.
- Legal prospectus liability applies to disclosures.
- Extensive due diligence is required, including background checks on management and large stockholders.
Tilting the Scales in Your Favor
Beware. Crowdfunding is far from a start-up fund raising panacea. You can still be sued for fraud for an actual or perceived misrepresentation or omission. One of the best ways to legally protect yourself and your business is also one of the most effective means for garnering serious investor interest. Disclose as much information as possible about your business, ensuring that if things begin to fall apart and investors threaten to sue for securities fraud or other issues, you can use your disclosure as a powerful defense – through the traditional Private Placement Memorandum – or PPM for short.
Growth in the DFW metroplex is booming, and the City of Flourish is one of the driving forces. Unfortunately, the City has had a difficult time keeping up its infrastructure with the growing population. Recently the City selected a bid from Slab Mixer Co., a concrete pipe manufacturer, for culverts for a project widening some of the City’s streets. After the City and Slab signed their contract, a group of Flourish citizens, concerned with how the City’s spending might affect their taxes, requested a copy of the contract under the Texas Public Information Act (TPIA). When the City notified Slab of the request, Slab asserted that some of the terms in the contract needed to be redacted because they would give Slab’s competitors an advantage in future contracts. Does Slab have the right to do that?
Background on the Texas Public Information Act
The Texas Public Information Act provides the public with the right to access information the government collects, subject to approximately 60 exceptions. Tex. Gov’t Code §§ 552.221, 552.101-.154. One exception is “information that, if released, would give advantage to a competitor or bidder.” Id. at § 552.104(a). Historically, the Texas Attorney General’s Office, which is charged with interpreting the Act and maintaining its uniformity, has taken the position that this exception only protects the governmental body, and not a private party. In other words, the AG believed the Act only allowed a governmental body to protect information that would place it at a disadvantage with other governmental bodies inside and outside of the State of Texas.
Do Private Parties Have a Right to Protect Their Bid Information?
Yes. In 2015 the Texas Supreme Court in The Boeing Company et al. v. Paxton held that “a private party may assert the exception to protect its competitively sensitive information.” The Court found that the plain language of the exception was not limited to a governmental body’s right to protect that information. It also noted that the governmental body had the right to defer to the private party to assert its competitive interests were at stake and request that the competitively sensitive information be withheld. Thus, Boeing had standing to assert the exception, but would have to show that the information requested, “if released, would give advantage to a competitor or bidder.”
What about Citizens’ Right to Know How Much Their Government is Spending?
Some have claimed the Texas Supreme Court’s decision in Boeing has given governmental bodies a carte blanche loophole to avoid turning over any information about their contracts. According to these critics, the Court’s decision allows the governmental bodies to assert that disclosing that information would give an advantage to the successful bidder’s competitors in the future.
While it’s a superficially appealing position from a taxpayer’s perspective, it ignores another argument that the governmental bodies assert to protect disclosure of this information. As mentioned above, the governmental bodies have asserted the exception protects disclosure of sensitive information that the body believes will give other governmental bodies an advantage.
For example, the Boeing case points out that the Attorney General ruled the exception protected disclosure of information concerning the Texas Governor’s marketing meetings with businesses in other states because the State is competing with other states to recruit those businesses to relocate. The release of that information would give other states the advantage to approach those businesses with competing or better incentives.
Companion bills (HB 792 and SB 407) have been filed in the Texas House and Senate to address the Texas Supreme Court’s decision in Boeing. If enacted, the legislation would make clear that the exception only allows a governmental body to protect information that it believes would harm its competitive interests. It would also apply an “exception to the exception” that would require governmental bodies to disclose that competitive information after the body awards the contract. HB 792 was recently referred to committee. SB 407 was referred to committee, where it was discussed but not voted upon yet.
Tilting the Scales in Your Favor
That depends on how your business has been affected by the competitive bidding process. If you have won bids in the past, and your proposals contain proprietary information that gives you a competitive advantage, you should ask the governmental body to redact that information if anyone requests it under the TPIA. On the other hand, if your business has consistently lost out in the bidding process, you may want to press the Legislature to pass HB 792 and SB 407 this session so that you can see your competitor’s proposals and try to figure out how you can match, or beat, them in the future.
Riding her beloved Packers late-game win against the Dallas Cowboys, Allfer Funn, owner of Con Genial, is polishing her cheese head hat and dusting off her Super Bowl Squares Pool from last year in anticipation of the Big Game in a couple of weeks. Electing not to “Reinvigorate [Her] Super Bowl Office Betting Pool” as some have suggested, she does, however, decide to up the ante from $10 a square on her 10 x 10 grid to $20 a square. Just good clean office fun to build morale, right? It’s not illegal… or is it?
The Legal Reality?
Yes, it’s illegal in any number of ways. It’s illegal gambling in Texas. And, for Allfer, organizing the Pool is likely “bookmaking” – receiving more than 5 bets in a 24 hour period. Under the gaming laws of all 50 states, it’s a bet with a prize that is won or lost solely by chance. Because squares pools involve randomly assigned numbers, the contest is entirely based on chance and thus illegal unless (in a state other than Texas) it falls within a state-specific “recreational gaming exception.”
And there’s more.
Beyond Texas, the federal Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992 also prohibits gambling, specifically on professional and amateur games. Should Allfer Funn or her employees elect to bet online there’s always the federal Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of 2006 (UIGEA) which Tilting commented upon in 2011 that prohibits nearly all types of online gambling.
Notably, the UIGEA exempts most fantasy sports competitions, classifying them as games of skill rather than games of chance – except for the Super Bowl. A fantasy football competition is based upon a single game with a limited number of outcomes as well as a limited number of players/teams from which participants can choose, whereas the Super Bowl is viewed as a game of chance rather than a game of skill.
The Practical Reality?
As reported in a Houston KTRH NewsRadio 740 interview last year by Tilting’s own Cleve Clinton, “It’s illegal. Now, realistically and practically, is anybody going to do anything about it? No.”
In the same interview, Clinton told KTRH that Texas law has such a broad definition of gambling, that technically any betting pool violates state law. Whether or not the state chooses to enforce that depends on a few factors.
“The first thing you really want to look at is how big of a pool are we talking about, the second thing is who’s running it, and the third, will someone (the organizer) profit by it,” says Clinton.
Allfer may want to reconsider and not increase the pool size from a total of $1,000 to $2,000.
Good Clean Fun?
Notwithstanding that gambling on the Super Bowl is illegal, Allfer Funn should be wary of potential retaliation and hostile work environment claims from employees either excluded from or uncomfortable with office gambling. What happens if an employee snitches? The Texas Penal Code seems to offer “testimonial immunity.”
Tilting the Scales in Your Favor
While Texas does have strong laws against gambling, most low-stakes office pools should be all right, as long as they are run by an individual and not the company, and nobody takes a profit or fee off the top for organizing or running the pool. “It risks becoming a problem when you get out of bounds on size or (scope),” says Clinton. It is best for Allfer Funn that she not manage the Super Bowl pool. And, she should check Con Genial’s employee manual to make sure that she is not stepping out of bounds of her own company policy. Finally, Allfer should be cognizant of the objection of any employee and respond accordingly. Go Packers!
Tilting the Scales articles: Internet Gambling in the U.S., March Madness Basketball Gambling, Wanna Bet? Betting About Baseball Returns to the News
Gunner Gunter employs dealership manager Sayles and computer technician H. Packard (“Pack”) at Falconaire’s Fine Ford and pays these “white collar” employees $40,000 per year. In busy sales months, each averages 50-60 hours a week without paid overtime. Do the new FLSA regulations affect Gunner?
Yes. Effective December 1st, Sayles and Pack must either be paid for their overtime hours or to avoid this mandate, their minimum annual salary must be $47,892 (up from the current $23,600 minimum per year) assuming they are Fair Labor Standards Act “white collar” employees (i.e., executive, administrative or professional) under the exemption, and not otherwise entitled to overtime pay.
The Labor Department estimates the new rules affect some 5 million exempt workers, predominantly in Texas, California, Florida, Illinois, New York and Pennsylvania, which have the largest number of newly eligible workers – 200,000 or more in each state. Of those numbers, hardest hit are lower-wage businesses and service industries like hospitality and retail, which identify the new rules as “Career Killers.” Rather than increasing salaries, many business may elect to reclassify professionals as hourly workers and reduce hours, adjust or remove existing benefits and flexibility (including loss of their more prestigious titles) or cut base salaries. “Comp time” (working overtime for future days off) is not an option for these newly eligible overtime workers. Even with labor reductions, the projected additional administrative costs to businesses to track hours of more employees and updating payroll systems are estimated to cost $745 million.
Employers who fail to comply after December 1st risk Department of Labor (DOL) investigation. More daunting, perhaps, is the threat of private litigation, including class action litigation – a risk with substantial downside potential.
Tilting the Scales in your Favor
Evaluate your current employees and salary levels to assess your company’s possible DOL exposure. If you elect to reclassify employees from “overtime exempt” to “overtime eligible”, develop comprehensive plans to (1) determine new hourly rates for impacted employees; (2) revise or update current timekeeping programs and policies to reflect the changes; and (3) implement training for both managers and employees addressing the changes. Congress may attempt to redirect these changes with legislation, but it’s more likely that the results of the November election will dictate whether that momentum is sustained. Consider using a Checklist.
For more insight on cutting edge employment issues, including federal changes to overtime exemptions, visit the Texas Employer Handbook blog, written by Gray Reed employment partner Michael Kelsheimer.
Over the summer, Brad Bevos’ company relocated him from Austin to Springfield, Illinois. A University of Texas alum and huge Longhorn football fan, the move bummed Brad because he won’t be able to attend home games this season. Because hotels are scarce during home game weekends, and other special events at UT, Brad decides to list his downtown Austin apartment for rent on VRBO instead of selling it. Brad manages to rent the apartment for 12 nights during the season for $2,400. Brad doesn’t include this income on his tax return, and when he gets audited the IRS finds out about his side business. Is Brad in trouble?
Issues to Look Out for When Renting Your Home
Many people now rent out their homes on VRBO or Airbnb websites to make extra income. Before entering the rental industry it’s best to understand how renting will affect your:
- income taxes;
- local taxes (do you owe hotel occupancy taxes?);
- property taxes (do I keep my homestead exemption?);
- homeowner’s insurance (does my policy cover me for tenants?); and
- whether you are complying with your HOA’s rules.
Do you owe the IRS?
It depends on how often you rent out your home during the year. The IRS has an exception – dubbed by some as the Master Exception for homeowners who rented out their Augusta homes during the Masters golf tournament – that permits you not to report rental income if:
- you rented the home for 14 days or less during the year; and
- you used the property yourself for 14 days or more during the year, or for more than 10% of the total days it is rented.You may be able to deduct some of your expenses to offset your rental income, so discuss with your tax advisor.
Does Brad owe the IRS?
No, because Brad rented out the house for less than 14 days, and he had lived there for more than 14 days before he was relocated. But, Brad will likely owe income taxes in future years if he rents for more than 14 days, or didn’t visit Austin for at least 14 days.
Tilting the Scales in Your Favor
Before getting into the rental business make sure you have a full understanding of the financial implications. If you are renting out a second home, you should consider hiring a rental management company who can handle day-to-day issues that arise, such as maintenance.