Riding her beloved Packers late-game win against the Dallas Cowboys, Allfer Funn, owner of Con Genial, is polishing her cheese head hat and dusting off her Super Bowl Squares Pool from last year in anticipation of the Big Game in a couple of weeks. Electing not to “Reinvigorate [Her] Super Bowl Office Betting Pool” as some have suggested, she does, however, decide to up the ante from $10 a square on her 10 x 10 grid to $20 a square. Just good clean office fun to build morale, right? It’s not illegal… or is it?
The Legal Reality?
Yes, it’s illegal in any number of ways. It’s illegal gambling in Texas. And, for Allfer, organizing the Pool is likely “bookmaking” – receiving more than 5 bets in a 24 hour period. Under the gaming laws of all 50 states, it’s a bet with a prize that is won or lost solely by chance. Because squares pools involve randomly assigned numbers, the contest is entirely based on chance and thus illegal unless (in a state other than Texas) it falls within a state-specific “recreational gaming exception.”
And there’s more.
Beyond Texas, the federal Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act of 1992 also prohibits gambling, specifically on professional and amateur games. Should Allfer Funn or her employees elect to bet online there’s always the federal Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act of 2006 (UIGEA) which Tilting commented upon in 2011 that prohibits nearly all types of online gambling.
Notably, the UIGEA exempts most fantasy sports competitions, classifying them as games of skill rather than games of chance – except for the Super Bowl. A fantasy football competition is based upon a single game with a limited number of outcomes as well as a limited number of players/teams from which participants can choose, whereas the Super Bowl is viewed as a game of chance rather than a game of skill.
The Practical Reality?
As reported in a Houston KTRH NewsRadio 740 interview last year by Tilting’s own Cleve Clinton, “It’s illegal. Now, realistically and practically, is anybody going to do anything about it? No.”
In the same interview, Clinton told KTRH that Texas law has such a broad definition of gambling, that technically any betting pool violates state law. Whether or not the state chooses to enforce that depends on a few factors.
“The first thing you really want to look at is how big of a pool are we talking about, the second thing is who’s running it, and the third, will someone (the organizer) profit by it,” says Clinton.
Allfer may want to reconsider and not increase the pool size from a total of $1,000 to $2,000.
Good Clean Fun?
Notwithstanding that gambling on the Super Bowl is illegal, Allfer Funn should be wary of potential retaliation and hostile work environment claims from employees either excluded from or uncomfortable with office gambling. What happens if an employee snitches? The Texas Penal Code seems to offer “testimonial immunity.”
Tilting the Scales in Your Favor
While Texas does have strong laws against gambling, most low-stakes office pools should be all right, as long as they are run by an individual and not the company, and nobody takes a profit or fee off the top for organizing or running the pool. “It risks becoming a problem when you get out of bounds on size or (scope),” says Clinton. It is best for Allfer Funn that she not manage the Super Bowl pool. And, she should check Con Genial’s employee manual to make sure that she is not stepping out of bounds of her own company policy. Finally, Allfer should be cognizant of the objection of any employee and respond accordingly. Go Packers!
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